INSPYRE 2023 – Abstract

Frascati,  March  27 – 31 , 2023

From Quarks to Black Holes: let’s get INSPYRED!



Monday 27 March – Auditorium B. Touschek

10:15 – 11:00 Get INSPYRED – Introduction and Presentation of LNF-INFN activities
(INSPYRE Directors: C. Curceanu)
12:30 – 13:30 The Standard Model of Particle Physics – A. D. Polosa (Univ. Sapienza Rome)
14:45 – 16:00  

Quantum cryptography – an introduction – A. Bassi (Univ. of Trieste)

We will present three key ingredients at the basis of quantum communication: Bell’s inequalities, teleportation and the no cloning theorem. For the first two, the Nobel prize in Physics was awarded last year to Aspect, Clauser and Zeilinger. Next, we will discuss the two most popular algorithms for quantum key distribution (the core of quantum cryptography): the so-called BB84 and E91 protocols. Last, we will present the state of the art in the implementation of quantum cryptography in Italy (and the rest of the world).

Tuesday 28 March – Auditorium B. Touschek

09:15 – 10:15 The physics of habitable worlds – A. Balbi (Univ. Tor Vergata, Rome)

In this talk, we will explore the physics underlying the existence of habitable worlds in the universe. We will begin by discussing the conditions necessary for a planet to be habitable, including factors such as distance from its host star, atmospheric composition, and the presence of liquid water. We will then delve into the physical processes that govern the evolution of planets and their atmospheres, such as plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the greenhouse effect. Next, we will examine the role that the host star plays in determining a planet’s habitability, including the effects of stellar radiation and magnetic fields on planetary atmospheres. Finally, we will consider the ongoing search for habitable worlds beyond our own solar system, including the methods used to detect exoplanets and the challenges of characterizing their atmospheres and surfaces. We will highlight recent discoveries and future prospects for finding and studying habitable worlds, and explore the broader implications for understanding the origins and prevalence of life in the universe.

10:30 – 11:30 Accelerating the future – M. Ferrario (INFN-LNF)

High energy particle beams with extreme luminosities and ultra-bright beams for energetic radiation sources are ubiquitous tools for studying the structure of matter in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Last century saw huge progress in the development of very efficient radio-frequency based accelerators. However, these require large scale research infrastructures in order to reach highest beam energies, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In order to reduce the size, costs and complexity of these facilities, particle and laser driven plasma wakefield acceleration, as well as recent advances in dielectric laser acceleration are very promising alternatives. Intense R&D is still required so that the output beam quality can match the performance of cutting edge RF accelerators. In this talk we will introduce the new acceleration techniques mechanisms and we will discuss the most interesting results and applications obtained so far, including a description of the new accelerator facility EuPRAXIA based on plasma modules to be built in Frascati in the next decade.

12:00 – 13:15 Talk – V. Fafone (Univ. Tor Vergata, Rome)
14:45 – 16:00 JWST, the Universe in a sand grain – F. Vitali (INAF)

The invisibility of the Universe began to reveal itself to our eyes more than 400 years ago, when Galileo, with a gesture as simple as it was revolutionary, pointed his telescope at the sky. The Universe talks to us with light, particles and gravitational waves, but most of this conversation is invisible to our senses. To understand, therefore, we must build the appropriate tools to “see” what our senses cannot perceive. Since the time of Galileo, technological progress has continuously expanded our sensitivity, making the Universe less and less invisible. And the latest, extraordinary machine built by the men and women of Science, the James Webb Space Telescope, has already shown its incredible and beautiful images of an ever closer and more fascinating Universe.

16:00 – 17:00 Nuclear Physics in everyday life – S. Pirrone (INFN-Catania)

Nuclear physics applications in different fields and their relevance in our life, will be explored.

Wednesday 29 March – Auditorium B. Touschek

14:45 – 15:10 Stranger things – the muons – E. Diaociaiuti (INFN-LNF)

“Muon, who ordered that?” That’s what Nobel laureate Isidor Isaac Rabi said…
In the 30s of the last century scientists thought they had everything figured out: matter is made of atoms, atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Suddenly they discovered the muon, a very interesting particle; we can say a heavy cousin of the electron.
Let’s discover together the many adventures of the research about the muons and why still in these days they are so special: from the volcano radiography to the g-2 anomaly

15:10 – 15:35 Unravelling the Secrets of the Strong Force: The SIDDHARTA-2 Experiment at the DAFNE Collider – F. Sgaramella (INFN-LNF)

The strong interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature that governs the behavior of subatomic particles. It is responsible for binding quarks together to form protons and neutrons, which in turn make up the atomic nuclei. However, despite its importance, the strong interaction remains one of the least understood forces in physics. To better understand this fundamental force, scientists have conducted experiments using particle colliders like the DAFNE collider in Italy.
One such experiment is the SIDDHARTA-2 experiment, which is focused on studying the properties of kaons – subatomic particles made up of the strange quark and the anti-quark up – and their interactions with other particles. By analyzing the behavior of kaons, we can gain insights into the nature of the strong interaction and the fundamental forces that govern it.
In this talk, we will explore the SIDDHARTA-2 experiment and its goals, including how it works, what it has discovered so far, and how its findings could impact our understanding of the strong interaction and the broader field of particle physics and astrophysics (equation of state of neutron stars). We will also discuss the challenges faced by scientists in studying the strong interaction and what the future of this exciting field of research may hold.

15:35 – 16:00 Talk – L. De Paolis (INFN-LNF)
16:00 – 17:00 Superconductors to jump in the future – A. Bersani (INFN-Genova)

First observed more than a century ago, the phenomenon of superoconductivity still represent a major, vibrating research field. Nowadays we start seeing the first industrial applications of such an extraordinary behaviour of matter at ultra low temperatures, and we can barely imagine how technology could develop in the next decades. “obviously”, waiting for next Halley’s Comet transit…

Thursday 30 March– Auditorium B. Touschek

14:45 – 16:00 Quantum Biology – S. Pisano (INFN-LNF, CREF)
16:00 – 17:00 Progetto SPES – T. Marchi (INFN-LNL)

Friday 31 March – Auditorium B. Touschek

09:00 – 10:15 Dark Matter: Modern quintessence of the universe – P. Gianotti (INFN-LNF)

Ancient Greek scholars believed that in nature there were 4 elements, the “fifth element” the ether was, according to Aristotle, the constituent of the celestial bodies.
Today we know that the matter that makes up the stars is the same we are made of, but the idea of something other than “ordinary” matter has not faded away. This is because we have discovered that this represents only 5% of what is present in the cosmos.
The idea that dark matter exists to explain the gravitational phenomena we observe in the universe dates back to the 1930s. In almost a century of experimental activity we learned a lot about what dark matter is not. A priori, all the theories able of explaining the phenomena we observe could be good, but in general those which, in addition to accounting for dark matter, are able to explain some phenomena that are not clear in our Standard Model are considered more reliable.
The seminar will retrace the evolution of the idea of dark matter from a historical point of view arriving to describe the experimental activities in progress to try to explain its nature.

10:15 – 11:15 Talk – C. Curceanu (INFN-LNF)
11:45 – 12:45 Nuclear energy from fission and fusion: an overview – M. Ripani (INFN-Genova)

In the lecture, the main concepts in the field of nuclear energy will be covered, illustrating the main aspects and technical challenges of radioactivity, fission and fusion processes and practical use of nuclear energy. The worldwide situation in the use of this energy source will be briefly illustrated, as well as the topics of safety, environmental impact and sustainability.



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